Red and near-infrared (NIR) light can penetrate organic tissues and be absorbed by the mitochondria, which are the energy-producing organelles within cells. This absorption of light energy by the mitochondria triggers a series of cellular responses, including an increase in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) – the primary source of energy for cellular processes.

The process by which red/NIR light is converted into usable energy by the body is known as photobiomodulation (PBM) or low-level light therapy (LLLT). PBM has been shown to have a range of therapeutic benefits, including improving tissue repair and reducing inflammation, pain, and oxidative stress.

Red/NIR light activates cytochrome c oxidase, an enzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which enhances the efficiency of cellular respiration, leading to increased ATP production. This increased ATP production has been shown to improve cellular function and promote tissue repair and regeneration.

In addition to its effects on ATP production, PBM has been shown to stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can trigger signaling pathways that promote cellular repair and regeneration. PBM has also been shown to reduce inflammation by suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increasing the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

The conversion of red/NIR light into usable energy by the body involves a complex series of cellular responses that lead to improved cellular function and tissue repair. With the right intensity and type of light source, we can optimize this process for the most efficient healing effects.